GNU/Linux 检测硬盘健康状态:S.M.A.R.T.

2018-07-25 13:53 更新

S.M.A.R.T. 是个用来检测硬盘健康状况的指标,虽然前文  GNU/Linux中使用 Clonezilla 打造不死的作业系统 提供了软件层面的备份方式,但硬件总有老旧、损坏的一天。而一台电脑中又以硬盘里的资料最为重要,这里冻仁将介绍 GNU/Linux 下检测、监控的方法。

2013-10-16-palimpsest-smart.png

▲ 在 GNOME 上我们可使用 磁碟公用程式 (GNOME Disks) 1 来检测 SMART。

安装 smartmontools

套件 smartmontools 包含了 smartctl, smartd,是个可以监控 ATA, SCSI 硬盘 (storage) SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System) 状态的工具。我们可以透过它来进阶设定各种硬盘退化、错误警告的回报机制。

安装文字介面的检测工具 smartmontools。

   # Debian, Ubuntu
   $ sudo aptitude install smartmontools 

   # CentOS, RHEL, Fedora
   $ sudo yum install smartmontools

smartctl

smartctl 主要是用来进行一次性、暂时性的硬盘扫描,以下为常见的使用方法。

  1. 查看该媒体是否支持 SMART 检测。

    # - 启用 (Enabled)。
    $ sudo smartctl -i /dev/sda
    smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.8.0-31-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    
    === START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
    Device Model:     ST3500413AS
    Serial Number:    Z2AAMWCL
    LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 035f695b1
    Firmware Version: JC45
    User Capacity:    500,107,862,016 bytes [500 GB]
    Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
    Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
    ATA Version is:   8
    ATA Standard is:  ATA-8-ACS revision 4
    Local Time is:    Wed Oct 16 21:04:44 2013 CST
    SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
    SMART support is: Enabled
    
    # - 停用 (Disabled)。
    $ sudo smartctl -i /dev/sda
    smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.8.0-31-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    
    === START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
    Device Model:     ST3500413AS
    Serial Number:    Z2AAMWCL
    LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 035f695b1
    Firmware Version: JC45
    User Capacity:    500,107,862,016 bytes [500 GB]
    Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
    Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
    ATA Version is:   8
    ATA Standard is:  ATA-8-ACS revision 4
    Local Time is:    Wed Oct 16 21:05:36 2013 CST
    SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
    SMART support is: Disabled
    
  2. 若尚未启用 SMART,可以使用 -s 参数开启它。

    $ sudo smartctl -s on /dev/sda
    smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.8.0-31-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    
    === START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
    SMART Enabled.
    
  3. 支持 SMART 后我们可以使用 -H 参数来手动检查硬盘、随身硬盘的建康状态。

    # - 通过 (passed)。
    $ sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda
    smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.8.0-31-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    
    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
    SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED
    
    # - 失败 (failed)。
    $ sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda
    smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.8.0-31-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    
    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
    SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: FAILED!
    Drive failure expected in less than 24 hours. SAVE ALL DATA.
    Failed Attributes:
    ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
    5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   004   004   005    Pre-fail  Always   FAILING_NOW 1887
    

smartd

smartd 是个可以把 smartmontools 注册成例行性服务 (Daemon) 并使用排程来监控的程式,以下为冻仁启用的步骤。

  1. 啟用 smartd。

    $ sudo vim /etc/default/smartmontools
    ...
    start_smartd=yes
    smartd_opts="--interval=1800"
    
  2. 备份设定档。

    $ sudo cp /etc/smartd.conf /etc/smartd.conf.ori
    
  3. 编辑设定档。

    $ sudo vi /etc/smartd.conf
    ......
    
    # 扫描所有的 ATA/SCSI 设备并将报告寄送给 root。
    DEVICESCAN -d removable -n standby -m root -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    
    # 每日 02:00 快速检查 sda,每周六 03:00 完整检查 sda。
    /dev/sda -a -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03)
    
    # 每日 04:00 快速检查 sdb,每周六 05:00 完整检查 sdb。
    /dev/sdb -a -o on -S on -s (S/../.././04|L/../../6/05)
    
    # 监控 SMART 状态
    /dev/sda -H -l error -l selftest -t -I 194
    /dev/sdb -H -l error -l selftest -t -I 194
    
    # 安静的检查,并只邮寄建康状态给 admin@example.tw
    /dev/sda -H -C 0 -U 0 -m admin@example.tw
    /dev/sdb -H -C 0 -U 0 -m admin@example.tw
    ......
    
  4. 启用服务

    $ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start
    
  5. 观看记录档 (log)。

    $ less /var/log/syslog
    ......
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: smartd 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.2.0-4-amd64] (local build)
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Opened configuration file /etc/smartd.conf
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Drive: DEVICESCAN, implied '-a' Directive on line 21 of file /etc/smartd.conf
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Configuration file /etc/smartd.conf was parsed, found DEVICESCAN, scanning devices
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Device: /dev/sda, type changed from 'scsi' to 'sat'
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], opened
    ......
    Oct 17 08:59:47 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], found in smartd database.
    Oct 17 08:59:48 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], is SMART capable. Adding to "monitor" list.
    Oct 17 08:59:48 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11523]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], state read from /var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.ST9320423AS-5VH55XKG.ata.state
    ......
    Oct 17 08:59:48 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11525]: smartd has fork()ed into background mode. New PID=11525.
    Oct 17 08:59:48 thinkpad-t410 smartd[11525]: file /var/run/smartd.pid written containing PID 11525
    

※ 若想让 smartd 使用 Gmail 寄送通知件,可使用 sSMTP 来达成。如果能再搭上两步验证里的专属应用程序密码会安全些。

当 SMART 亮起红灯时,请快速备份并更换硬盘。这时可以先拿先前淘汰的旧硬盘垫挡,否则就赶紧买颗新的补上了! (若您的硬盘保固还没过,那您可以换新硬盘了,恭喜!)

资料来源


1. GNOME Disks 原名为 gnome-disk-utility 和 Palimpsest。在部份的版本中需用 palimpsest 指令来启用磁盘公用程式,例 Debian 7.8。 ↩


以上内容是否对您有帮助:
在线笔记
App下载
App下载

扫描二维码

下载编程狮App

公众号
微信公众号

编程狮公众号

意见反馈
返回顶部