GNU/Linux 销毁资料:Shred

过去在 GNU/Linux 里,冻仁会使用 dd,此指令会将资料填零而达到抹除磁盘的功用,但就算这样还是有被专业人士还原的风险;现在冻仁都改用 shred指令来完成这项任务,此指令是专门用来撕碎资料的。

dd

将 /dev/sdX 装置填零。

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdX bs=1M

shred

  1. 开始 shred 之前,您必须先安装 coreutils 套件。

    $ sudo aptitude install coreutils 
    
    # -v 显示进度。
    # -f 强制写入,必要时允许变更权限写入。
    # -z 用零覆写并撕碎。
    # -n 指定覆写次数。
    # -n 指定覆写次数。
    
  2. 抹除硬盘

    $ sudo shred -vfz -n 10 /dev/sdX
    shred: /dev/sdX:11 次之第 1 次 (random)...
    shred: /dev/sdX:11 次之第 1 次 (random)...471MiB/932GiB 0%
    shred: /dev/sdX:11 次之第 1 次 (random)...472MiB/932GiB 0%
    shred: /dev/sdX:11 次之第 1 次 (random)...949MiB/932GiB 0%
    ......
    
  3. 抹除档案

    $ shred -vu -n 10 hello-sherd.txt 
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: pass 1/3 (random)...
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: pass 2/3 (random)...
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: pass 3/3 (random)...
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: removing
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: renamed to 000000000000000
    shred: 000000000000000: renamed to 00000000000000
    shred: 00000000000000: renamed to 0000000000000
    shred: 0000000000000: renamed to 000000000000
    shred: 000000000000: renamed to 00000000000
    shred: 00000000000: renamed to 0000000000
    shred: 0000000000: renamed to 000000000
    shred: 000000000: renamed to 00000000
    shred: 00000000: renamed to 0000000
    shred: 0000000: renamed to 000000
    shred: 000000: renamed to 00000
    shred: 00000: renamed to 0000
    shred: 0000: renamed to 000
    shred: 000: renamed to 00
    shred: 00: renamed to 0
    shred: hello-sherd.txt: removed
    

※ shred 在 ext3, ext4 这类的日志档案系统上运作时可能无法完整清除,若真不放心可以试试 hdparm

资料来源


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