PostgreSQL 语法

默认情况下 PostgreSQL 安装完成后,自带了一个命令行工具 SQL Shell(psql)。

Linux 系统可以直接切换到 postgres 用户来开启命令行工具:

#  sudo -i -u postgres

Windows 系统一般在它的安装目录下:

Program Files → PostgreSQL 11.3 → SQL Shell(psql)

Mac OS 我们直接搜索就可以了找到:

进入命令行工具,我们可以使用 \help 来查看各个命令的语法 :

postgres-# \help <command_name>

例如,我们查看下 select 语句的语法:

postgres=# \help SELECT
Command:     SELECT
Description: retrieve rows from a table or view
Syntax:
[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
    [ * | expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]
    [ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
    [ WHERE condition ]
    [ GROUP BY grouping_element [, ...] ]
    [ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
    [ WINDOW window_name AS ( window_definition ) [, ...] ]
    [ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL | DISTINCT ] select ]
    [ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [ NULLS { FIRST | LAST } ] [, ...] ]
    [ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
    [ OFFSET start [ ROW | ROWS ] ]
    [ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ count ] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]
    [ FOR { UPDATE | NO KEY UPDATE | SHARE | KEY SHARE } [ OF table_name [, ...] ] [ NOWAIT | SKIP LOCKED ] [...] ]

from_item 可以是以下选项之一:

    [ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]

SQL 语句

一个 SQL 语句通常包含了关键字、标识符(字段)、常量、特殊符号等,下面是一个简单的 SQL 语句:

SELECT id, name FROM w3cschool
SELECTid, nameFROMw3cschool
符号类型关键字标识符(字段)关键字标识符
描述命令id 和 name 字段语句,用于设置条件规则等表名

PostgreSQL 命令

ABORT

ABORT 用于退出当前事务。

ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ALTER AGGREGATE

修改一个聚集函数的定义 。

ALTER AGGREGATE _name_ ( _argtype_ [ , ... ] ) RENAME TO _new_name_
ALTER AGGREGATE _name_ ( _argtype_ [ , ... ] ) OWNER TO _new_owner_
ALTER AGGREGATE _name_ ( _argtype_ [ , ... ] ) SET SCHEMA _new_schema_

ALTER COLLATION

修改一个排序规则定义 。

ALTER COLLATION _name_ RENAME TO _new_name_
ALTER COLLATION _name_ OWNER TO _new_owner_
ALTER COLLATION _name_ SET SCHEMA _new_schema_

ALTER CONVERSION

修改一个编码转换的定义。

ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DATABASE

修改一个数据库。

ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter
ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES

定义默认的访问权限。

ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES
    [ FOR { ROLE | USER } target_role [, ...] ]
    [ IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] ]
    abbreviated_grant_or_revoke

where abbreviated_grant_or_revoke is one of:

GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
    [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
    ON TABLES
    TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
...

ALTER DOMAIN

修改一个域的定义。

ALTER DOMAIN name { SET DEFAULT expression | DROP DEFAULT }
ALTER DOMAIN name { SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER DOMAIN name ADD domain_constraint
ALTER DOMAIN name DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER DOMAIN name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER FUNCTION

修改一个函数的定义。

ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER GROUP

修改一个用户组。

ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO new_name

ALTER INDEX

修改一个索引的定义。

ALTER INDEX name OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE indexspace_name
ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER LANGUAGE

修改一个过程语言的定义。

ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER OPERATOR

改变一个操作符的定义。

ALTER OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE }, { righttype | NONE } )
OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS

修改一个操作符表的定义。

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method RENAME TO new_name
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SCHEMA

修改一个模式的定义。

ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SEQUENCE

修改一个序列生成器的定义。

ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

ALTER TABLE

修改表的定义。

ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
action [, ... ]
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column
ALTER TABLE name
RENAME TO new_name

其中 action 可以是以选项之一:

ADD [ COLUMN ] column_type [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
DROP [ COLUMN ] column [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column TYPE type [ USING expression ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET DEFAULT expression
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column DROP DEFAULT
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column { SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STATISTICS integer
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STORAGE { PLAIN | EXTERNAL | EXTENDED | MAIN }
ADD table_constraint
DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
CLUSTER ON index_name
SET WITHOUT CLUSTER
SET WITHOUT OIDS
OWNER TO new_owner
SET TABLESPACE tablespace_name

ALTER TABLESPACE

修改一个表空间的定义。

ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER TRIGGER

修改改变一个触发器的定义 。

ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TYPE

修改一个类型的定义 。

ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER USER

修改数据库用户帐号 。

ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
ALTER USER name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER USER name RESET parameter

Where option can be −

[ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| VALID UNTIL 'abstime'

ANALYZE

收集与数据库有关的统计。

ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

BEGIN

开始一个事务块。

BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

transaction_mode 可以是以下选项之一:

ISOLATION LEVEL { 
   SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
   | READ UNCOMMITTED
}
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

CHECKPOINT

强制一个事务日志检查点 。

CHECKPOINT

CLOSE

关闭游标。

CLOSE name

CLUSTER

根据一个索引对某个表盘簇化排序。

CLUSTER index_name ON table_name
CLUSTER table_name
CLUSTER

COMMENT

定义或者改变一个对象的注释。

COMMENT ON {
   TABLE object_name |
   COLUMN table_name.column_name |
   AGGREGATE agg_name (agg_type) |
   CAST (source_type AS target_type) |
   CONSTRAINT constraint_name ON table_name |
   CONVERSION object_name |
   DATABASE object_name |
   DOMAIN object_name |
   FUNCTION func_name (arg1_type, arg2_type, ...) |
   INDEX object_name |
   LARGE OBJECT large_object_oid |
   OPERATOR op (left_operand_type, right_operand_type) |
   OPERATOR CLASS object_name USING index_method |
   [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE object_name |
   RULE rule_name ON table_name |
   SCHEMA object_name |
   SEQUENCE object_name |
   TRIGGER trigger_name ON table_name |
   TYPE object_name |
   VIEW object_name
} 
IS 'text'

COMMIT

提交当前事务。

COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

COPY

在表和文件之间拷贝数据。

COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
[ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE NOT NULL column [, ...] ]
COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ]

CREATE AGGREGATE

定义一个新的聚集函数。

CREATE AGGREGATE name (
   BASETYPE = input_data_type,
   SFUNC = sfunc,
   STYPE = state_data_type
   [, FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
   [, INITCOND = initial_condition ]
)

CREATE CAST

定义一个用户定义的转换。

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITH FUNCTION func_name (arg_types)
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]
CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITHOUT FUNCTION
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER

定义一个新的约束触发器 。

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name
AFTER events ON
table_name constraint attributes
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( args )

CREATE CONVERSION

定义一个新的的编码转换。

CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name
FOR source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM func_name

CREATE DATABASE

创建新数据库。

CREATE DATABASE name
[ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] db_owner ]
   [ TEMPLATE [=] template ]
   [ ENCODING [=] encoding ]
   [ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ] 
]

CREATE DOMAIN

定义一个新域。

CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type
[ DEFAULT expression ]
[ constraint [ ... ] ]

constraint 可以是以下选项之一:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ NOT NULL | NULL | CHECK (expression) }

CREATE FUNCTION

定义一个新函数。

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION name ( [ [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] )
RETURNS ret_type
{ LANGUAGE lang_name
   | IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE
   | CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT
   | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER
   | AS 'definition'
   | AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'
} ...
[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]

CREATE GROUP

定义一个新的用户组。

CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
Where option can be:
SYSID gid
| USER username [, ...]

CREATE INDEX

定义一个新索引。

CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]
( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]
[ WHERE predicate ]

CREATE LANGUAGE

定义一种新的过程语言。

CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name
HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR val_function ]

CREATE OPERATOR

定义一个新的操作符。

CREATE OPERATOR name (
   PROCEDURE = func_name
   [, LEFTARG = left_type ] [, RIGHTARG = right_type ]
   [, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]
   [, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]
   [, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]
   [, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]
   [, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]
)

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS

定义一个新的操作符表。

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS name [ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE data_type
USING index_method AS
{ OPERATOR strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]
   | FUNCTION support_number func_name ( argument_type [, ...] )
   | STORAGE storage_type
} [, ... ]

CREATE ROLE

定义一个新的数据库角色。

CREATE ROLE _name_ [ [ WITH ] _option_ [ ... ] ]

where `_option_` can be:

      SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
    | CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
    | CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
...

CREATE RULE

定义一个新重写规则。

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event
TO table [ WHERE condition ]
DO [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) }

CREATE SCHEMA

定义一个新模式。

CREATE SCHEMA schema_name
[ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username
[ schema_element [ ... ] ]

CREATE SERVER

定义一个新的外部服务器。。

CREATE SERVER _server_name_ [ TYPE '_server_type_' ] [ VERSION '_server_version_' ]
    FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER _fdw_name_
    [ OPTIONS ( _option_ '_value_' [, ... ] ) ]

CREATE SEQUENCE

定义一个新序列发生器。

CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name
[ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

CREATE TABLE

定义一个新表。

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { 
   TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name ( { 
      column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
      | table_constraint
      | LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] 
   } [, ... ]
)
[ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]
[ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]
[ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

column_constraint 可以是以下选项之一:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ] { 
   NOT NULL |
   NULL |
   UNIQUE [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
   PRIMARY KEY [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
   CHECK (expression) |
   REFERENCES ref_table [ ( ref_column ) ]
   [ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
   [ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] 
}
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

table_constraint 可以是以下选项之一:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
CHECK ( expression ) |
FOREIGN KEY ( column_name [, ... ] )
REFERENCES ref_table [ ( ref_column [, ... ] ) ]
[ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
[ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

CREATE TABLE AS

从一条查询的结果中定义一个新表。

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name
[ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]
AS query

CREATE TABLESPACE

定义一个新的表空间。

CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory'

CREATE TRIGGER

定义一个新的触发器。

CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }
ON table [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]
EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( arguments )

CREATE TYPE

定义一个新的数据类型。

CREATE TYPE name AS
( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )
CREATE TYPE name (
INPUT = input_function,
OUTPUT = output_function
[, RECEIVE = receive_function ]
[, SEND = send_function ]
[, ANALYZE = analyze_function ]
[, INTERNALLENGTH = { internal_length | VARIABLE } ]
[, PASSEDBYVALUE ]
[, ALIGNMENT = alignment ]
[, STORAGE = storage ]
[, DEFAULT = default ]
[, ELEMENT = element ]
[, DELIMITER = delimiter ]
)

CREATE USER

创建一个新的数据库用户帐户。

CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

option 可以是以下选项之一:

SYSID uid
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| IN GROUP group_name [, ...]
| VALID UNTIL 'abs_time'

CREATE VIEW

定义一个视图。

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] AS query

DEALLOCATE

删除一个准备好的查询。

DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name

DECLARE

定义一个游标。

DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]
CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query
[ FOR { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ]

DELETE

删除一个表中的行。

DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table [ WHERE condition ]

DROP AGGREGATE

删除一个用户定义的聚集函数。

DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CAST

删除一个用户定义的类型转换。

DROP CAST (source_type AS target_type) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CONVERSION

删除一个用户定义的编码转换。

DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP DATABASE

删除一个数据库。

DROP DATABASE name

DROP DOMAIN

删除一个用户定义的域。

DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP FUNCTION

删除一个函数。

DROP FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP GROUP

删除一个用户组。

DROP GROUP name

DROP INDEX

删除一个索引。

DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP LANGUAGE

删除一个过程语言。

DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR

删除一个操作符。

DROP OPERATOR name ( { left_type | NONE }, { right_type | NONE } )
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR CLASS

删除一个操作符表。

DROP OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP ROLE

删除一个数据库角色。

DROP ROLE [ IF EXISTS ] _name_ [, ...]

DROP RULE

删除一个重写规则。

DROP RULE name ON relation [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SCHEMA

删除一个模式。

DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SEQUENCE

删除一个序列。

DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLE

删除一个表。

DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLESPACE

删除一个表空间。

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name

DROP TRIGGER

删除一个触发器定义。

DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TYPE

删除一个用户定义数据类型。

DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP USER

删除一个数据库用户帐号。

DROP USER name

DROP VIEW

删除一个视图。

DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

END

提交当前的事务。

END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

EXECUTE

执行一个准备好的查询。

EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ]

EXPLAIN

显示一个语句的执行规划。

EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement

FETCH

用游标从查询中抓取行。

FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

direction 可以是以下选项之一:

NEXT
PRIOR
FIRST
LAST
ABSOLUTE count
RELATIVE count
count
ALL
FORWARD
FORWARD count
FORWARD ALL
BACKWARD
BACKWARD count
BACKWARD ALL

GRANT

定义访问权限。

GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE db_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION func_name ([type, ...]) [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

INSERT

在表中创建新行,即插入数据。

INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
{ DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | query }

LISTEN

监听一个通知。

LISTEN name

LOAD

加载或重载一个共享库文件。

LOAD 'filename'

LOCK

锁定一个表。

LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lock_mode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

lock_mode 可以是以下选项之一:

ACCESS SHARE | ROW SHARE | ROW EXCLUSIVE | SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE
| SHARE | SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE | EXCLUSIVE | ACCESS EXCLUSIVE

MOVE

定位一个游标。

MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

NOTIFY

生成一个通知。

NOTIFY name

PREPARE

创建一个准备好的查询。

PREPARE plan_name [ (data_type [, ...] ) ] AS statement

REINDEX

重建索引。

REINDEX { DATABASE | TABLE | INDEX } name [ FORCE ]

RELEASE SAVEPOINT

删除一个前面定义的保存点。

RELEASE [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

RESET

把一个运行时参数值恢复为默认值。

RESET name
RESET ALL

REVOKE

删除访问权限。

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE db_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION func_name ([type, ...]) [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP group_name | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

ROLLBACK

退出当前事务。

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT

回滚到一个保存点。

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

SAVEPOINT

在当前事务里定义一个新的保存点。

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name

SELECT

从表或视图中取出若干行。

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

from_item 可以是以下选项:

[ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]
( select ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] )
[ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] | column_definition [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) AS ( column_definition [, ...] )
from_item [ NATURAL ] join_type from_item
[ ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) ]

SELECT INTO

从一个查询的结果中定义一个新表。

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SET

修改运行时参数。

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { time_zone | LOCAL | DEFAULT }

SET CONSTRAINTS

设置当前事务的约束检查模式。

SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }

SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

为当前会话设置会话用户标识符和当前用户标识符。

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION username
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION DEFAULT
RESET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

SET TRANSACTION

开始一个事务块。

SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

Where transaction_mode is one of −

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
| READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

SHOW

显示运行时参数的值。

SHOW name
SHOW ALL

START TRANSACTION

开始一个事务块。

START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

transaction_mode 可以是下面的选项之一:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED
| READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

TRUNCATE

清空一个或一组表。

TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name

UNLISTEN

停止监听通知信息。

UNLISTEN { name | * }

UPDATE

更新一个表中的行。

UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...]
[ FROM from_list ]
[ WHERE condition ]

VACUUM

垃圾收集以及可选地分析一个数据库。

VACUUM [ FULL ] [ FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] [ table ]
VACUUM [ FULL ] [ FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] ANALYZE [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

VALUES

计算一个或一组行。

VALUES ( _expression_ [, ...] ) [, ...]
    [ ORDER BY _sort_expression_ [ ASC | DESC | USING _operator_ ] [, ...] ]
    [ LIMIT { _count_ | ALL } ]
    [ OFFSET _start_ [ ROW | ROWS ] ]
    [ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ _count_ ] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]


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