TensorFlow定义创建分区变量的函数

由 Carrie 创建, 最后一次修改 2017-09-22

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""Helper 函数用于创建分区变量.

这是一个方便的抽象,以分割一个大变量

可以分配给不同设备的多个较小的变量.

可以通过连接较小的变量来重构完整变量.

使用分区变量而不是单个变量大多是一个

性能选择.但它也对以下因素有影响:

1.随机初始化,随机数生成器每次调用一次切

2.更新,因为它们跨片段并行发生

一个关键的设计目标是允许不同的图形来重新分配变量

具有相同的名称但不同的切片,包括可能没有分区.

TODO(touts):如果 initializer 提供种子,则必须更改种子

地每个切片,也许通过添加一个,否则每个切片

切片将使用相同的值.也许这可以通过传递

切片偏移量到初始化器功能.

典型用法:

```python

#使用以下命令创建分区变量列表:

vs = create_partitioned_variables(

    <shape>,<sliceing>,<initializer>,name = <optional-name>)

#将列表作为输入传递给嵌入式并行查找的 embedding_lookup:

y = embedding_lookup(vs,ids,partition_strategy =“div”)

#或者并行获取变量以加快大量的 matmuls:

z = matmul(x,concat(slice_dim,vs))

```

""" from __future__ import absolute_import from __future__ import division from __future__ import print_function import math from tensorflow.python.framework import dtypes from tensorflow.python.framework import tensor_shape from tensorflow.python.ops import variable_scope from tensorflow.python.platform import tf_logging as logging __all__ = [ "create_partitioned_variables", "variable_axis_size_partitioner", "min_max_variable_partitioner", "fixed_size_partitioner", ] def variable_axis_size_partitioner( max_shard_bytes, axis=0, bytes_per_string_element=16, max_shards=None): """Get a partitioner for VariableScope to keep shards below `max_shard_bytes`. This partitioner will shard a Variable along one axis, attempting to keep the maximum shard size below `max_shard_bytes`. In practice, this is not always possible when sharding along only one axis. When this happens, this axis is sharded as much as possible (i.e., every dimension becomes a separate shard). If the partitioner hits the `max_shards` limit, then each shard may end up larger than `max_shard_bytes`. By default `max_shards` equals `None` and no limit on the number of shards is enforced. One reasonable value for `max_shard_bytes` is `(64 << 20) - 1`, or almost `64MB`, to keep below the protobuf byte limit. Args: max_shard_bytes: The maximum size any given shard is allowed to be. axis: The axis to partition along. Default: outermost axis. bytes_per_string_element: If the `Variable` is of type string, this provides an estimate of how large each scalar in the `Variable` is. max_shards: The maximum number of shards in int created taking precedence over `max_shard_bytes`. Returns: A partition function usable as the `partitioner` argument to `variable_scope`, `get_variable`, and `get_partitioned_variable_list`. Raises: ValueError: If any of the byte counts are non-positive. """ if max_shard_bytes < 1 or bytes_per_string_element < 1: raise ValueError( "Both max_shard_bytes and bytes_per_string_element must be positive.") if max_shards and max_shards < 1: raise ValueError( "max_shards must be positive.") def _partitioner(shape, dtype): """Partitioner that partitions shards to have max_shard_bytes total size. Args: shape: A `TensorShape`. dtype: A `DType`. Returns: A tuple representing how much to slice each axis in shape. Raises: ValueError: If shape is not a fully defined `TensorShape` or dtype is not a `DType`. """ if not isinstance(shape, tensor_shape.TensorShape): raise ValueError("shape is not a TensorShape: %s" % shape) if not shape.is_fully_defined(): raise ValueError("shape is not fully defined: %s" % shape) if not isinstance(dtype, dtypes.DType): raise ValueError("dtype is not a DType: %s" % dtype) if dtype.base_dtype == dtypes.string: element_size = bytes_per_string_element else: element_size = dtype.size partitions = [1] * shape.ndims bytes_per_slice = 1.0 * ( shape.num_elements() / shape[axis].value) * element_size # How many slices can we fit on one shard of size at most max_shard_bytes? # At least one slice is required. slices_per_shard = max(1, math.floor(max_shard_bytes / bytes_per_slice)) # How many shards do we need for axis given that each shard fits # slices_per_shard slices from a total of shape[axis].value slices? axis_shards = int(math.ceil(1.0 * shape[axis].value / slices_per_shard)) if max_shards: axis_shards = min(max_shards, axis_shards) partitions[axis] = axis_shards return partitions return _partitioner def min_max_variable_partitioner(max_partitions=1, axis=0, min_slice_size=256 << 10, bytes_per_string_element=16): """Partitioner to allocate minimum size per slice. Returns a partitioner that partitions the variable of given shape and dtype such that each partition has a minimum of `min_slice_size` slice of the variable. The maximum number of such partitions (upper bound) is given by `max_partitions`. Args: max_partitions: Upper bound on the number of partitions. Defaults to 1. axis: Axis along which to partition the variable. Defaults to 0. min_slice_size: Minimum size of the variable slice per partition. Defaults to 256K. bytes_per_string_element: If the `Variable` is of type string, this provides an estimate of how large each scalar in the `Variable` is. Returns: A partition function usable as the `partitioner` argument to `variable_scope`, `get_variable`, and `get_partitioned_variable_list`. """ def _partitioner(shape, dtype): """Partitioner that partitions list for a variable of given shape and type. Ex: Consider partitioning a variable of type float32 with shape=[1024, 1024]. If `max_partitions` >= 16, this function would return [(1024 * 1024 * 4) / (256 * 1024), 1] = [16, 1]. If `max_partitions` < 16, this function would return [`max_partitions`, 1]. Args: shape: Shape of the variable. dtype: Type of the variable. Returns: List of partitions for each axis (currently only one axis can be partitioned). Raises: ValueError: If axis to partition along does not exist for the variable. """ if axis >= len(shape): raise ValueError("Can not partition variable along axis %d when shape is " "only %s" % (axis, shape)) if dtype.base_dtype == dtypes.string: bytes_per_element = bytes_per_string_element else: bytes_per_element = dtype.size total_size_bytes = shape.num_elements() * bytes_per_element partitions = total_size_bytes / min_slice_size partitions_list = [1] * len(shape) # We can not partition the variable beyond what its shape or # `max_partitions` allows. partitions_list[axis] = max(1, min(shape[axis].value, max_partitions, int(math.ceil(partitions)))) return partitions_list return _partitioner def fixed_size_partitioner(num_shards, axis=0): """Partitioner to specify a fixed number of shards along given axis. Args: num_shards: `int`, number of shards to partition variable. axis: `int`, axis to partition on. Returns: A partition function usable as the `partitioner` argument to `variable_scope`, `get_variable`, and `get_partitioned_variable_list`. """ def _partitioner(shape, **unused_args): partitions_list = [1] * len(shape) partitions_list[axis] = min(num_shards, shape[axis].value) return partitions_list return _partitioner def create_partitioned_variables( shape, slicing, initializer, dtype=dtypes.float32, trainable=True, collections=None, name=None, reuse=None): """Create a list of partitioned variables according to the given `slicing`. Currently only one dimension of the full variable can be sliced, and the full variable can be reconstructed by the concatenation of the returned list along that dimension. Args: shape: List of integers. The shape of the full variable. slicing: List of integers. How to partition the variable. Must be of the same length as `shape`. Each value indicate how many slices to create in the corresponding dimension. Presently only one of the values can be more than 1; that is, the variable can only be sliced along one dimension. For convenience, The requested number of partitions does not have to divide the corresponding dimension evenly. If it does not, the shapes of the partitions are incremented by 1 starting from partition 0 until all slack is absorbed. The adjustment rules may change in the future, but as you can save/restore these variables with different slicing specifications this should not be a problem. initializer: A `Tensor` of shape `shape` or a variable initializer function. If a function, it will be called once for each slice, passing the shape and data type of the slice as parameters. The function must return a tensor with the same shape as the slice. dtype: Type of the variables. Ignored if `initializer` is a `Tensor`. trainable: If True also add all the variables to the graph collection `GraphKeys.TRAINABLE_VARIABLES`. collections: List of graph collections keys to add the variables to. Defaults to `[GraphKeys.GLOBAL_VARIABLES]`. name: Optional name for the full variable. Defaults to `"PartitionedVariable"` and gets uniquified automatically. reuse: Boolean or `None`; if `True` and name is set, it would reuse previously created variables. if `False` it will create new variables. if `None`, it would inherit the parent scope reuse. Returns: A list of Variables corresponding to the slicing. Raises: ValueError: If any of the arguments is malformed. """ logging.warn( "create_partitioned_variables is deprecated. Use " "tf.get_variable with a partitioner set, or " "tf.get_partitioned_variable_list, instead.") if len(shape) != len(slicing): raise ValueError("The 'shape' and 'slicing' of a partitioned Variable " "must have the length: shape: %s, slicing: %s" % (shape, slicing)) if len(shape) < 1: raise ValueError("A partitioned Variable must have rank at least 1: " "shape: %s" % shape) # Legacy: we are provided the slicing directly, so just pass it to # the partitioner. partitioner = lambda **unused_kwargs: slicing with variable_scope.variable_scope( name, "PartitionedVariable", reuse=reuse): # pylint: disable=protected-access partitioned_var = variable_scope._get_partitioned_variable( name=None, shape=shape, dtype=dtype, initializer=initializer, trainable=trainable, partitioner=partitioner, collections=collections) return list(partitioned_var) # pylint: enable=protected-access
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