SQL HAVING 子句


 在 SQL 中增加 HAVING 子句原因是,WHERE 关键字无法与 Aggregate 函数一起使用。

 HAVING子句已添加到SQL中,因为WHERE关键字不能用于聚合函数。

SQL HAVING 语法

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition
GROUP BY column_name(s)
HAVING condition
ORDER BY column_name(s);

演示数据库


 以下是罗斯文示例数据库中"Customers"表的选择:

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
1

Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany
2 Ana Trujillo Emparedados y helados Ana Trujillo Avda. de la Constitución 2222 México D.F. 05021 Mexico
3 Antonio Moreno Taquería Antonio Moreno Mataderos 2312 México D.F. 05023 Mexico
4

Around the Horn Thomas Hardy 120 Hanover Sq. London WA1 1DP UK
5 Berglunds snabbköp Christina Berglund Berguvsvägen 8 Luleå S-958 22 Sweden

SQL HAVING示例


 以下SQL语句列出了每个国家/地区的客户数量。只包括超过5位客户的国家/地区:

SELECT COUNT(CustomerID), Country
FROM Customers
GROUP BY Country
HAVING COUNT(CustomerID) > 5;

 以下SQL语句列出每个国家的客户数量,从高到低排序(仅包括拥有超过5名客户的国家/地区):

SELECT COUNT(CustomerID), Country
FROM Customers
GROUP BY Country
HAVING COUNT(CustomerID) > 5
ORDER BY COUNT(CustomerID) DESC;


演示数据库


 以下是罗斯文示例数据库中"Orders"表的一个选择:

OrderID CustomerID EmployeeID OrderDate ShipperID
10248 90 5 1996-07-04 3
10249 81 6 1996-07-05 1
10250 34 4 1996-07-08 2

并从"Employees"表中选择:

EmployeeID LastName FirstName BirthDate Photo Notes
1 Davolio Nancy 1968-12-08 EmpID1.pic Education includes a BA....
2 Fuller Andrew 1952-02-19 EmpID2.pic Andrew received his BTS....
3 Leverling Janet 1963-08-30 EmpID3.pic Janet has a BS degree....

更多HAVING示例


 以下SQL语句列出已注册超过10个订单的员工:

SELECT Employees.LastName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS NumberOfOrders
FROM (Orders
INNER JOIN Employees ON Orders.EmployeeID = Employees.EmployeeID)
GROUP BY LastName
HAVING COUNT(Orders.OrderID) > 10;

 以下SQL语句列出员工“Davolio”或“Fuller”是否已注册超过25个订单:

SELECT Employees.LastName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS NumberOfOrders
FROM Orders
INNER JOIN Employees ON Orders.EmployeeID = Employees.EmployeeID
WHERE LastName = 'Davolio' OR LastName = 'Fuller'
GROUP BY LastName
HAVING COUNT(Orders.OrderID) > 25;