JavaFX 时间轴动画

由 haiguiking 创建,小路依依 最后一次修改 2017-01-09

JavaFX教程 - JavaFX时间轴动画


通过更改节点的属性(如大小,位置和颜色等)创建动画。

时间轴动画会随着时间的推移更新属性值。

JavaFX支持关键帧动画。动画状态场景在某些时间由开始和结束关键帧声明。

什么是关键值?

JavaFX允许我们创建可以内插的定时事件预定义的值来生成动画。

例如,为了产生淡出效果,我们将目标为节点的不透明属性来内插其值,从完全不透明的1开始到在一段时间内是透明的0。

以下代码定义了一个KeyValue,它以从1开始并以0结尾的矩形的不透明度属性为目标。

Rectangle rectangle  = new Rectangle(0, 0, 50,   50);
KeyValue keyValue  = new KeyValue(rectangle.opacityProperty(), 0);

KeyValue对象实际上不内插值。它定义属性的开始和结束值。

默认情况下,KeyValue对象将有一个线性插值器。

KeyValue可以用不同的方式定义类型的内插器,如线性,ease in, 或ease out。

以下代码定义了一个键值,它将使用Interpolator.EASE_OUT内插器从左到右将矩形动画化100像素。渐弱将减慢结束键值之前的渐变。

Rectangle rectangle  = new Rectangle(0, 0, 50,   50);
KeyValue keyValue  = new KeyValue(rectangle.xProperty(), 100, Interpolator.EASE_OUT);

什么是关键帧?

当动画发生时,每个步骤称为由KeyFrame对象定义的关键帧。

关键帧在javafx.util.Duration中定义的时间段内插入在KeyValue对象中定义的键值。

当创建KeyFrame对象时,构造函数需要一个定时持续时间(Duration)。KeyFrame构造函数接受一个或多个键值。

假设我们要从左上角到右下角移动一个矩形,我们定义一个具有1000毫秒持续时间的关键帧和两个表示矩形的x和y属性的关键值。

以下代码定义关键帧,以一秒或1000毫秒将矩形的左上角(0,0)移动到点(100,100)。

Rectangle rectangle  = new Rectangle(0, 0, 50, 50);

KeyValue xValue  = new KeyValue(rectangle.xProperty(), 100); 
KeyValue yValue  = new KeyValue(rectangle.yProperty(), 100);

KeyFrame keyFrame  = new KeyFrame(Duration.millis(1000), xValue, yValue);

什么是时间轴?

时间轴是由许多KeyFrame对象组成的一个动画序列。每个KeyFrame对象按顺序运行。

时间轴是javafx.animation.Animation类的子类,它具有标准属性,如循环计数和自动反转。

循环计数是播放动画的次数。要无限期地播放动画,请使用值Timeline.INDEFINITE。

auto-reverse 属性是一个布尔标志,表示动画可以向后播放时间轴。

默认情况下,周期计数设置为1,自动反转设置为false。

要向时间轴对象添加关键帧,请使用getKeyFrames().addAll()方法。

以下代码演示了自动反转设置为true时无限期播放的时间轴。

Timeline timeline  = new Timeline(); 
timeline.setCycleCount(Timeline.INDEFINITE); 
timeline.setAutoReverse(true); 
timeline.getKeyFrames().addAll(keyFrame1,  keyFrame2); 
timeline.play();

例子

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2011, 2012 Oracle and/or its affiliates.
 * All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
 * This file is available and licensed under the following license:
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 *  - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *  - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
 *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *  - Neither the name of Oracle nor the names of its
 *    contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
 *    from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
 * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
 * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
 * OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
 * SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
 * DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
 * THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
 * (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
 * OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

//package colorfulcircles;

import javafx.animation.KeyFrame;
import javafx.animation.KeyValue;
import javafx.animation.Timeline;
import javafx.application.Application;
import javafx.scene.Group;
import javafx.scene.Node;
import javafx.scene.Scene;
import javafx.scene.effect.BlendMode;
import javafx.scene.effect.BoxBlur;
import javafx.scene.paint.Color;
import javafx.scene.paint.CycleMethod;
import javafx.scene.paint.LinearGradient;
import javafx.scene.paint.Stop;
import javafx.scene.shape.Circle;
import javafx.scene.shape.Rectangle;
import javafx.scene.shape.StrokeType;
import javafx.stage.Stage;
import javafx.util.Duration;
import static java.lang.Math.random;

public class Main extends Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        launch(args);
    }

    @Override
    public void start(Stage primaryStage) {
        Group root = new Group();
        Scene scene = new Scene(root, 800, 600, Color.BLACK);
        primaryStage.setScene(scene);
        Group circles = new Group();
        for (int i = 0; i < 30; i++) {
            Circle circle = new Circle(150, Color.web("white", 0.05));
            circle.setStrokeType(StrokeType.OUTSIDE);
            circle.setStroke(Color.web("white", 0.16));
            circle.setStrokeWidth(4);
            circles.getChildren().add(circle);
        }
        Rectangle colors = new Rectangle(scene.getWidth(), scene.getHeight(),
                new LinearGradient(0f, 1f, 1f, 0f, true, CycleMethod.NO_CYCLE, new Stop[]{
                    new Stop(0, Color.web("#f8bd55")),
                    new Stop(0.14, Color.web("#c0fe56")),
                    new Stop(0.28, Color.web("#5dfbc1")),
                    new Stop(0.43, Color.web("#64c2f8")),
                    new Stop(0.57, Color.web("#be4af7")),
                    new Stop(0.71, Color.web("#ed5fc2")),
                    new Stop(0.85, Color.web("#ef504c")),
                    new Stop(1, Color.web("#f2660f")),}));
        Group blendModeGroup =
                new Group(new Group(new Rectangle(scene.getWidth(), scene.getHeight(),
                Color.BLACK), circles), colors);
        colors.setBlendMode(BlendMode.OVERLAY);
        root.getChildren().add(blendModeGroup);
        circles.setEffect(new BoxBlur(10, 10, 3));
        Timeline timeline = new Timeline();
        for (Node circle : circles.getChildren()) {
            timeline.getKeyFrames().addAll(
                    new KeyFrame(Duration.ZERO, // set start position at 0
                    new KeyValue(circle.translateXProperty(), random() * 800),
                    new KeyValue(circle.translateYProperty(), random() * 600)),
                    new KeyFrame(new Duration(40000), // set end position at 40s
                    new KeyValue(circle.translateXProperty(), random() * 800),
                    new KeyValue(circle.translateYProperty(), random() * 600)));
        }
        // play 40s of animation
        timeline.play();

        primaryStage.show();
    }
}

上面的代码生成以下结果。

null

时间轴事件

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2011, Pro JavaFX Authors
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
 *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
 *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
 *    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. Neither the name of JFXtras nor the names of its contributors may be used
 *    to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
 *    specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
 * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
 * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
 * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
 * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
 * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
 * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
 * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
 * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
 * Metronome1Main.fx - A simple example of animation using a Timeline
 *
 *  Developed 2011 by James L. Weaver jim.weaver [at] javafxpert.com
 *  as a JavaFX SDK 2.0 example for the Pro JavaFX book.
 */
import javafx.animation.AnimationTimer;
import javafx.animation.KeyFrame;
import javafx.animation.KeyValue;
import javafx.animation.Timeline;
import javafx.application.Application;
import javafx.event.ActionEvent;
import javafx.event.EventHandler;
import javafx.scene.Group;
import javafx.scene.Scene;
import javafx.scene.effect.Lighting;
import javafx.scene.layout.StackPane;
import javafx.scene.paint.Color;
import javafx.scene.shape.Circle;
import javafx.scene.text.Text;
import javafx.stage.Stage;
import javafx.util.Duration;
 
public class Main extends Application {
    
    //main timeline
    private Timeline timeline;
    private AnimationTimer timer;
 
    //variable for storing actual frame
    private Integer i=0;
 
    @Override public void start(Stage stage) {
        Group p = new Group();
        Scene scene = new Scene(p);
        stage.setScene(scene);
        stage.setWidth(500);
        stage.setHeight(500);
        p.setTranslateX(80);
        p.setTranslateY(80);
 
        //create a circle with effect
        final Circle circle = new Circle(20,  Color.rgb(156,216,255));
        circle.setEffect(new Lighting());
        //create a text inside a circle
        final Text text = new Text (i.toString());
        text.setStroke(Color.BLACK);
        //create a layout for circle with text inside
        final StackPane stack = new StackPane();
        stack.getChildren().addAll(circle, text);
        stack.setLayoutX(30);
        stack.setLayoutY(30);
 
        p.getChildren().add(stack);
        stage.show();
 
        //create a timeline for moving the circle
        timeline = new Timeline();
        timeline.setCycleCount(Timeline.INDEFINITE);
        timeline.setAutoReverse(true);
 
        //You can add a specific action when each frame is started.
        timer = new AnimationTimer() {
            @Override
            public void handle(long l) {
                text.setText(i.toString());
                i++;
            }
        };
 
        //create a keyValue with factory: scaling the circle 2times
        KeyValue keyValueX = new KeyValue(stack.scaleXProperty(), 2);
        KeyValue keyValueY = new KeyValue(stack.scaleYProperty(), 2);
 
        //create a keyFrame, the keyValue is reached at time 2s
        Duration duration = Duration.millis(2000);
        //one can add a specific action when the keyframe is reached
        EventHandler onFinished = new EventHandler<ActionEvent>() {
            public void handle(ActionEvent t) {
                 stack.setTranslateX(java.lang.Math.random()*200-100);
                 //reset counter
                 i = 0;
            }
        };
 
        KeyFrame keyFrame = new KeyFrame(duration, onFinished , keyValueX, keyValueY);
 
        //add the keyframe to the timeline
        timeline.getKeyFrames().add(keyFrame);
 
        timeline.play();
        timer.start();
    }
        
        
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Application.launch(args);
    }
  } 
  

上面的代码生成以下结果。

null
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